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The free imperial city of Dortmund was the trading and cultural centre, lying on the Hellweg , an important east-west trading route, that also brought prosperity to the town of Duisburg.

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Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany and France, as well as several other countries.

Passive resistance was called off in late , allowing Germany to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan , which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr in However, the occupation of the Ruhr caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government.

Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation. Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production.

The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay. On 7 March , [10] Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30, troops into the Rhineland. As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht. All restraint on German rearmament could now be removed, and was. France's eastern allies the Soviet Union , Poland , Czechoslovakia , Romania and Yugoslavia concluded that since the French refused to defend their own border, they certainly would not stand up for their allies in the East.

Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France had built since The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund on 12 March with 1, aircraft — Lancasters, Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos — was a record to a single target in the whole of World War II. More than 4, tons of bombs were dropped through the city centre and the south of the city. After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential.

The French Monnet Plan pushed for an internationalization of the area, [20] and the subsequent Ruhr Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany. Increased German control of the area was limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into the multinational European Coal and Steel Community in The nearby Saar region , containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France as a protectorate in and did not politically return to Germany until January , with economic reintegration occurring two years later.

Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr. By , after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.

After , Germany was hard hit by a worldwide economic crisis, soaring oil prices, and increasing unemployment, which jumped from , in to 1. The Ruhr region was hardest hit, as the easy-to-reach coal mines became exhausted, and German coal was no longer competitive. Likewise the Ruhr steel industry went into sharp decline, as its prices were undercut by lower-cost suppliers such as Japan.

The welfare system provided a safety net for the large number of unemployed workers, and many factories reduced their labor force and began to concentrate on high-profit specialty items. As demand for coal decreased after , the area went through phases of structural crisis see steel crisis and industrial diversification, first developing traditional heavy industry, then moving into service industries and high technology.

The air and water pollution of the area are largely a thing of the past although some issues take a long time to solve. A page publication seems to be responsible for the use of "Ruhr" as a short form of the then more common "Ruhr District" or "Ruhr Valley": Yet "The report of a deputation from the Transport and General Workers' Union which spent a fortnight examining the problems in the Ruhr Valley", published in The Economic Review , Volume 8, , is still using the traditional term.

In the same year, "Objections by the United States to discriminatory regulations on exports from the occupied region of the Ruhr" was published in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States.

Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson still write in The Ruhr River is only one of half a dozen rivers in the Ruhr district, in addition to the Rhine. The Rhine itself runs through the heart of the Ruhr district. The name preferred for the region in this dictionary is "Ruhrgebiet", followed by "Ruhr Valley". The Ruhr has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position, with mildening winds from the Atlantic travelling over the lowlands to moderate temperature extremes, in spite of its relatively northerly latitude that sees significant variety in daylight hours.

A consequence of the marine influence is a cloudy and wet climate with low sunshine hours. Summers normally average in the low 20s, with winters being somewhat above the freezing point. The local dialect of German is commonly called Ruhrdeutsch or Ruhrpottdeutsch , although there is really no uniform dialect that justifies designation as a single dialect.

It is rather a working class sociolect with influences from the various dialects found in the area and changing even with the professions of the workers. A major common influence stems from the coal mining tradition of the area. For example, quite a few locals prefer to call the Ruhr either "Pott", which is a derivate of "Pütt" pitmen's term for mine ; cp. During the 19th century the Ruhr attracted up to , ethnic Poles , Masurians and Silesians from East Prussia and Silesia in a migration known as Ostflucht flight from the east.

By , the Ruhrgebiet had around 3. Most of the new inhabitants came from Eastern Europe, but immigrants also came from France , Ireland , and the United Kingdom.

It has been claimed that immigrants came to the Ruhr from over different nations. Almost all their descendants today speak German as a mother tongue, and for various reasons they do not identify with their Polish roots and traditions, often only their Polish family names remaining as a sign of their past. The Industrial Heritage Trail German: Route der Industriekultur links tourist attractions related to the European Route of Industrial Heritage in the Ruhr area.

Ruhr is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Ruhr has three major opera houses and more than 10 theaters and stages. Each year in spring time, there is the Klavier-Festival Ruhr in the Ruhr area with 50 to 80 events of classical and jazz music. The Ruhr region has with 22 universities and colleges and more than , [35] students, the highest density of further education establishments anywhere in Germany. These include five universities alone in the cities of Bochum , Duisburg , Dortmund , Essen and Witten.

In addition, Folkwang University of the Arts is an internationally acclaimed art college with its base in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, the universities are not the only places in the Ruhr region where academic qualifications can be obtained.

There are 17 different universities of applied sciences which offer students to have the opportunity to undertake practice-relevant and qualified studies in various subjects, such as economics, logistics, administration or management [36]. Students enrolled at one of the UA Ruhr universities can attend lectures and seminars at all three institutions without having to pay a visiting student fee.

Consequently, they have many options to specialize in and to explore their chosen disciplines in depth. All public transport companies in the Ruhr region are run under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr , which provides a uniform ticket system valid for the entire area. The Ruhr region is well-integrated into the national rail system, the Deutsche Bahn , for both passenger and goods services, each city in the region has at least one or more train stations.

The bigger central stations have hourly direct connections to the bigger European cities as Amsterdam , Brussels , Paris , Vienna or Zürich. The Ruhr area also contains the longest tram system in the world, with tram and Stadtbahn services from Witten to Krefeld. Originally the system was even bigger, it was possible to travel from Unna to Bad Honnef without using railway or bus services.

The A1, A2 and A3 are mostly used by through traffic, while the other autobahns have a more regional function. Both the A44 and the A52 have several missing links, in various stages of planning.

Some missing sections are currently in construction or planned to be constructed in the near future. Additional expressways serve as bypasses and local routes, especially around Dortmund and Bochum. The first Autobahns in the Ruhr opened during the mids. Due to the density of the network, and the number of alternative routes, traffic volumes are generally lower than other major metropolitan areas in Europe. Traffic congestion is an everyday occurrence, but far less so than in the Randstad in the Netherlands, another polycentric urban area.

Most important Autobahns have six lanes, but there are no eight-lane Autobahns in the Ruhr. It is served by the Düsseldorf Flughafen and Düsseldorf Flughafen Terminal railway stations , with its several parking lots, terminals and stations being connected by the Skytrain. Dortmund Airport in the Eastern Ruhr is a mid-sized airport, offering scheduled flights to domestic and European destinations and its approximately 1. Bundesautobahn 52 in Mülheim. Located in the East of the Ruhr is Dortmund Airport.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the urban area. For the namesake river, see Ruhr river. For other uses, see Ruhr disambiguation. Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. History of the Ruhr. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.

List of cities in Germany with more than , inhabitants. North Rhine-Westphalia portal Germany portal Energy portal.

This is a belt of low and level land on the northern edge of the uplands, known as the Sauerland through which flows the Ruhr from east to west" Dickinson , p. Wengeberg in Breckerfeld , lowest: Legt lastwagen täglich mehr als 2.

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