The putsch, he announced to his assembled retinue, was "perhaps the best thing that could have happened for our future. Days later, photographs of the condemned men dangling from hooks still lay about the great map table in his bunker.
As his horizons shrank on all sides, Hitler took great satisfaction from this, his last great triumph. The execution chamber at Plötzensee Prison showing the guillotine that was used to behead most victims until the sheer number of executions during the Third Reich made it impractical. Today there is a memorial inside the gaol commemorating those executed by the Nazis, dedicated on September 14, All that remains now is the execution shed, a small brick building with two rooms, where the victims were either hanged or beheaded.
Cadavers of the condemned would be delivered to the anatomical institute at Humboldt University below to be used for dissection under supervision of Professor Stieve. From an article in Der Spiegel about executions here: Built between and to a design by Heinrich Wolff to house the central bank , the Reichsbank became the Finance Ministry and later headquarters of the Central Committee of the East German Communist Party.
Google couldn't explain the error when approached by German mass-circulation daily B. The square had been returned to its current name by 9 p.
The square was originally called Reichskanzlerplatz when it was constructed in the early s. The square's name returned to Reichskanzlerplatz from to , when it was given the name of the first federal president of Germany, Theodor Heuss. The Funkturm and Ausstellungshallen in Charlottenburg during the Olympics and today. The Nazi-era reliefs on both sides of the portal entrance. Joseph Wackerle reichsadler dating Denkmal der nationalen Erhebung.
Reichsadler dating from b y Max Esser at Lüdenscheider Weg near Haselhorster dam within a children's playground. German Reich Railways Central Office. Through Gleichschaltung , the Nazis placed the rail network under direct government control on 10 February , adding swastikas to the Hoheitsadler on the railcars. Here, at the back of the central office of the Deutsche Reichsbahn, is the stone emblem- a winged wheel- although the swastika relief at the base has been removed.
The chemist's on Potsdamer Platz in and today. Located on Hermannplatz, where Kreuzberg meets Neukolln, the Karstadt department store was one of the most revolutionary buildings to be constructed in Berlin before the War.
Opened in as Europe's biggest department store, it had its own underground station and art deco twin towers that were strikingly reminiscent of a Manhattan skyscraper. Wartime bombs left little of it s original grandeur intact, yet it was promptly rebuilt and is still one of Berlin's most popular department stores. Petty crime skyrocketed as the inhabitants of Berlin turned to looting as a survival strategy. One of the looters' targets was the huge Karstadt department store on Hermannplatz.
Thousands of people crammed into Karstadt, grabbing everything in sight but especially food and warm clothing. The store supervisors eventually let them get away with whatever food they could find, though they tried to prevent them taking anything else.
Bahm Berlin - The Final Reckoning. Only one wing of the original building survives, on the southwest corner as seen in the photo above. There has been a dramatic account of the looting of the Karstadt department store in the Hermannplatz, where queuing shoppers had been blown to pieces during the first artillery bombardment on 21 April. The explosion was said to have killed many over-eager looters. They needed Karstadt's twin towers as observation posts to watch the Soviet advance on Neuk6lln and the Tempelhof aerodrome The Palast Hotel before and after the war and in its current incarnation.
Two underground statios then and now. Opened as "Hasenheide" in , the name changed to "Kaiser-Friedrich-Platz" in and to "Gardepionierplatz" in In the station received the name Südstern. Frankfurter Tor station is situated under Frankfurter Tor, a large square.
Built in it, was first named Petersburger Strasse. After the war it was named Besarinstrasse Besarin was the first Soviet commander of Berlin. In it was again renamed to Frankfurter Tor. Under the Nazis it had authority over research and development departments in the areas of television engineering, high-frequency technology, cable wide-band transmission, meteorology, and acoustics microphone technology.
Just after the war. The eponymous square is named after Fehrbellin, where in the Battle of Fehrbellin between Brandenburg-Prussia and the Swedish Empire took place. Its horseshoe shape was laid out in and is still surrounded by several administrative buildings of the Nazi era, including the former seat of the German Labour Front finished in , today the Wilmersdorf town hall.
Entschädigungsbehörde in the Wilmersdorf district was built in by the architect Philipp Schaefer as an office complex for the Rudolf Karstadt department store chain; the Nazi-era reliefs are still present. The military train took the soldiers into Charlottenburg Station, which was their introduction to the city, if they were not lucky enough to fly into Gatow.
British soldiers in Berlin wore a flash on their sleeve. There were messes all over the British Sector. This was the former Adolf Hitler Platz in Charlottenburg, the name of which was changed to Reichskanzlerplatz until it was realised that Hitler too had been chancellor. On the other side of the square was the Marlborough Club, where officers could be gentlemen.
For the Other Ranks there was the Winston Club. From to , the Schiller T heatre was extensively rebuilt for the city of Berlin by Paul Baumgarten. A government box was incorporated. The theatre was destroyed in an air strike on 23 November From to , it was rebuilt for the city of Berlin according to plans by the architects Heinz Völker and Rolf Grosse. Site of Reichpost TV Studios - The Nazi eagle remains, dated, above the entrance. Recently uncovered footage, long buried in East German archives, confirms that television's first revolution occurred under the Third Reich.
From to , Berlin studios churned out the world's first regular TV programming, replete with the evening news, street interviews, sports coverage, racial programs, and interviews with Nazi officials.
Select audiences, gathered in television parlours across Germany, numbered in the thousands; plans to create a mass viewing public, through the distribution of 10, people's television sets, were upended by World War Two. German technicians achieved remarkable breakthroughs in televising live events, including near instantaneous broadcasts of the Olympic Games.
At the same time, the demand for continuous programming opened up camera opportunities far less controlled, and more candidly revealing, than Third Reich propagandists would have liked an interview with a bumbling Robert Ley is particularly embarrassing.
In its stated mission - to imprint the image of the Führer onto every German heart - Nazi television proved a major disappointment. But its surviving footage - rolls have been found so far offers an intriguing new window onto Hitler's Germany.
It carried the names of a joint founders of the KPD who were murdered on 15 January by members of the free corps. Within the month the building was searched and renamed the Horst Wessel-Haus. It had been abandoned some weeks before by the Communist leaders, a number of whom had already gone underground or quietly slipped off to Russia. The reaction of the public and even of some of the conservatives in the government was one of skepticism.
It was obvious that something more sensational must be found to stampede the public before the election took place on March 5. The communist party was outlawed and its members killed or sent to the concentration camps.
When the Nazis came to power in , the district was renamed Horst-Wessel-Stadt after the Nazi activist and writer of the Nazi hymn whose slow death, after being shot by communists, in Friedrichshain hospital shown below in was turned into a propaganda event by Joseph Goebbels.
During the war Friedrichshain was actually one of the most badly damaged parts of Berlin, as Allied strategic bombers specifically targeted its industries. As late as the nineties, some buildings still displayed bullet holes from the intense house to house fighting during the Battle of Berlin. After the war ended, the boundary between the American and Soviet occupation sectors ran between Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg, with Friedrichshain in the east and Kreuzberg in the west.
Everything went according to schedule. There were no serious disruptions to the rank and file of the 35, SA men marching through the streets. Every Volk which struggles to the fore from utter misery and defeat to cleanse and liberate itself also produces vocalists who are able to put into words what the masses bear in their innermost hearts. It is thus that the powerful Volksbewegung, the Movement of Germany, has also found the voice able to express what the men in rank feel.
With his song, which is sung by millions today, Horst Wessel has erected a monument to himself in ongoing history which shall prevail longer than stone and bronze. Even after centuries have passed, even when not a stone is left standing in this great city of Berlin, one will be mindful of the greatest German liberation movement and its vocalist. Comrades, raise the flags.
Horst Wessel, who lies under this stone, is not dead. Every day and every hour his spirit is with us, marching in our ranks. Donarus The Complete Hitler. Today the grave at St. Nikolai-Friedhof in Berlin-Friedrichshain is slowly disintegrating. The grave here is shown alternately honoured and desecrated on the 70th anniversary of his murder in The song was first performed at Wessel's funeral. Banned in Germany, it can be heard by clicking here.
The Städtische Krankenhaus am Friedrichshain, the hospital where Horst Wessel succumbed to his injuries and received the status of Nazi martyr in February The Volksbühne and the Kino Babylon in and today. It was at this station that saw Hitler return to Berlin from his crushing defeat of France.
As Kershaw described the scene,. During the Second World War the Anhalter Bahnhof was one of three stations used to deport some 55, Berlin Jews between and , about a third of the city's entire Jewish population as of From the Anhalter alone 9, left, in groups of 50 to at a time using trains. In contrast to other deportations using freight wagons, here the Jews were taken away in ordinary passenger coaches which were coupled up to regular trains departing according to the normal timetable.
All deportations went to Theresienstadt and from there to the death camps. The station after the war. Nearby is what had been one of the largest refuges in Berlin, the Anhalter Bahnhof bunker, completed in , with walls 2. Antony Beevor Berlin: In the station hall spanning two platforms with four tracks was rebuilt in its present plain style.
Heavily damaged during the war as shown here, train service at the station was resumed on 4 November , whilst the reconstruction of the hall continued until Beevor writes of "stories, mainly the product of German paranoia, that Ts were driven into railway tunnels to emerge behind their lines. The only genuine case of an underground tank, however, appears to be that of an unfortunate T driver who failed to spot the entrance of the Alexanderplatz U-Bahn station and charged down the stairs.
Stories of light artillery bumped down station stairs, step by step, and manhandled on to the tracks also owe more to folklore than to fact. RuSHA's staff included many determined and industrious young men who either had medical or some other professional eligibility. The RuSHA began evicting landowners from their homes and settling Germans in their place in mid Possible candidates were screened and interviewed by "race experts and qualifications examiners.
Next door had been where Goebbels as Gauleiter founded the weekly Nazi battle sheet Der Angriff in Also with offices here were the party house management of the Hitler Youth and the Gau-Rundfunkstelle broadcasting site. It is in this paper that one can find the clearest exposition of where Nazism stood on the Weimar Republic. We go into the Reichstag in order to obtain the weapons of democracy We become Reichstag deputies in order to paralyze the Weimar mentality with its own help.
The Oberbaum Bridge after the war, and today. In April the Wehrmacht blew up the middle section of the bridge in an attempt to stop the Red Army from crossing it. After the war ended, Berlin was divided into four sectors. The Oberbaum Bridge crossed between the American and Soviet sectors. There were other Ord. W hile away on an inspection trip I was transferred to the st Tank Maint. We wore the 3rd Army patch.
Due to trouble that Tito was causing at Trieste, President Truman created what we were told was a secret organization. Believe this or not the group I was with was designated as " Company X '. All mail outgoing was censored. It was collected and sent back to Furth to be mailed from the APO there. It was a German Army kaserne across from a major DP camp and next to a very large minefield where some type of prisoners were probing for the mines and often goofed exploding the mine.
I think I have some documents issued and marked Company X -- that is, if the hurricanes did not destroy them. We found all our shop trucks lined up in a field next to the kaserne.
The rear doors of my Small Arms truck was sealed by 3 spot welds and when opened was fully equipped. It would have been a fairly simple movement except for the fact that each truck was fully loaded and pulling a loaded trailer. All, and I mean all, bridges large and small had been blown by the Germans. One large detour south of Munich required us to decend down into a valley on a dirt road bulldozed by our engineers.
Slippery going down, murder climbing back up and out of the valley. My serial stalled on the way up and I started to slide backwards but stopped by the truck behind me. This allowed me to get into compound low with front wheel drive engaged. Somewhere along the way south of the climb out we were diverted to a U. Constabulary compound the 66th at Deggendorf, Germany. After about a month we returned to Munich then back to Furth.
On the way back to Furth I was driving a M26 tractor, the front half of a tank transporter, and was stopped by a full Colonel who broke down in his staff car.
He probably got the ride of his life. I reported to Col. Nixon, G4 3rd Army, same guy I picked up on the road. Stayed with him and his French wife at their villa in Heidelberg. Was told my CO was Col. This was true of all General Staff drivers and also all General Officers drivers. When 3rd Army was deactivated in Feb.
Keyes, 3rd Army C. Nixon with him and Nixon eventually took me to Vienna too. But not before I was made part of U. Constabulary Hqtrs who took over from 3rd Army. Then transferred to Hq. Vienna and was assigned as chief driver and section chief for Lt.
Stayed with the reserves and commissioned as a Infantry Officer Picture was taken by an unidentified member of Wire Company, 97th Sig Bn. Remaining pictures from the same photographer are dated aroun d July-Aug Shoveling snow in front of barracks KB.
Operation Wintershield KB. South Hampton, England KB. Our mission as a direct support ordnance company was to replace truck engines and drive trains, tank and armored personnel carrier power packs, and repair or replace track assemblies; rebuilt batteries, carburetors, fuel pumps, generators and starters.
We had complete automotive maintenance and supply facilities, a battery refurbishing shop, a body repair and paint shop and a fuel and electric shop. I was sea sick for most of the voyage. Working in the hot laundry room aboard ship did not help my situation.
It was a miserable experience. I lucked out not having to return to the U. Jon Lang next to company sign. I was assigned to the 8th Ordnance Co. DS from through late I was transferred to the 22nd Ord. The 8th Ord Co. We had border duty at camps in Regen and Rohrbach on the Czech border that I can recall. The 11th Cav was rotated back to the States in In , the 11th was deployed to Viet Nam where it served proudly. The crest on your website was the one I wore when I was discharged from the Army.
The crest I wore in 8th Ordnance was a yellow shield with 3 swords pointed upward with the tips touching. Under the shield was a small dark blue banner with the latin words "Ad Alta" which means "To the Highest".
I believe the Army moves crests around and have heard of this crest being used by other units as well. Email from Bruce Samoore, 22nd Ord Co, The rear of the billets KB. Entering shop area KB. Exiting shop area KB. Main Shop Building KB. Email from James D. Henry, 22nd Ord Co, I arrived in Munich in Sept We were part of the 71st Ord Battalion at Landshut.
The shop foreman was MSGT. George Forester, from Georgia. He could remember the vehicle USA numbers of each of the trucks which were in the shop for repair. The Company clerk was Cpl Geipe. He had a photographic memory also. He could recite the entire company's Army serial numbers. Kyle was section chief. Msgt Bailey from Louisiana was head of the Artillery and Inst. Crouch was the watch repairman. Some of the instrument repairmen were: I left the 22nd in February, and mustered out in Ft.
Email from Marvin Ashmen, 22nd Ord Co, I was with the 22nd Ord Co from May to Oct My picture is the ninth down see 22nd Ord Co group photo in Edward L. Sanders post on the far left -- PFC Ashmen.
I worked in the Instrument Section. I would like to post some pictures if possible. They look good for being so old. The 22nd Ord barracks was right behind the bomded out building Photo 1. My old car is parked out front on the left. I was able to look out my window and see my car. The picture of the four buddies we were roommates; L to R: The picture of me at the back gate shows a small village.
I don't see the village in Google. Little history of me; after I was discharge from the Army in Nov I have a list of assignments on the classmates web page under my name school Gloucester High NJ. I have some pictures of downtown Munich at nite should you be interested. Oh, the tank picture was taken at Henry Kaserne Looking west towards Warner Barracks KB.
Email from John Miller, 22nd Ord Co, I was assigned to the 22nd Ordnance Co at the end of and left in June The memories were all good and serving for Capt Ayers was a pleasure. When I said I did a little it was off to the bowling alley as the Officers had a team. We played at Dachau and at Feldafing, south of Munich. Both courses are still going, but the one at Dacau is not run by the Army.
I have good memories of golf in Germany. Capt Gadde was a hands-on person who liked to run things from the shop area and so I was made the EX Officer for the paper work. Both men were very good Officers from where I stood.
I can not say the same for one at Battalion HQ in Dachau. I had a problem with him relative to a soldier I was defending at a court martial. He was later proved wrong. He also latter made the front page of the LA Times when his small son inspected the troops dressed as a Lt. This was after he had left Germany. I have many good memories from this tour, and thought about staying on the Army.
I however had a job waiting at North American Aviation as an Engineer. I spent my life working on the Space Program and designing Aircraft. I got to know some wonderful officers in this job. This was a wonderful experience, I know I worked 24 straight hours at the start of the Gulf War. May God Bless each and every one of our Troops and America. Email from Marlen Hagen, 22nd Ord Co, I arrived in Bremerhaven, Germany in July and traveled via train to Munich.
The 22nd Ordnance was located at Will Kaserne in the northeast section of Munich across from the Warner Kaserne and was part of the 71st Ordnance Battalion. I worked in the Orderly Room and the Personnel Department. I remember fellow soldiers like George C. Carl Forte was our 1st Sargeant. Gadde was our company commander. We stayed there about three months and then returned to Munich. I was transferred to Battalion Headquarters in Dachau for awhile. I spent two years in active reserve and two years inactive reserve.
I understand but not sure that the 22nd Ordnance Company does not exist any longer. I was going to travel to Germany again but I understand that Will Kaserne is gated shut and weeds are growing all over. Their next assignment is in Augsburg, where the company will provide service for three Field Artillery Battalions.
Supply stores keep customers operating By Mike Novogradac The 22nd Maintenance Company , 1st Maintenance Battalion, wouldn't have any problem commercializing its supply operation, should it ever want to do so.
According to Chief Warrant Officer 2 James Stone, the 22nd's supply technician, the unit actually contains three "stores" where its 37 customer units can "buy" Class IX repair parts.
And like an auto parts supplier, customers can exchange items like batteries and brakeshoes for quality rebuilt parts. In their Quick Supply Store , the maintenance unit's customers can choose from over items - nuts, bolts, windshield wipers, light bulbs, etc.
Known as the DAS-3 Decentralized, Automated Service Support System , the computer is capable of operating in many different environments and it even goes to the field during lengthy exercises. Stone explained how the computer looks at the dollar value of every item it handles. The DAS-3 also considers at the item's "ship time" -- the time from ordering to arrival. We only have so much money we can spend to stock our supplies. We order an item, stock it and can't reorder it until a customer draws it from it from our system.
Maintenance company supports variety of units By Robert Mitchem "I feel the performance and unit support of the soldiers assigned I to this unit is superb," said SFC Willy Hightower, acting first sergeant of the th Maintenance Company , 71st Maintenance Battalion. Its primary customer unit is the th Field Artillery Brigade 1 according to Capt. Jon Provost, the company commander. The remainder of his company is stationed at Pinder Kaserne in Zirndorf.
We are also required to have any shipment we receive, stocked and processed through the computer within 24 hours of receiving it," said Williams. Besides the time spent in the warehouse shipping, receiving and processing nearly 3, repair parts, Williams said the warehouse and maintenance crews spend a fair amount of time in the field. There seems to be somebody going out about once a month for about two weeks each month," he said.
I thought I had it rough there. That's why I changed career fields. Actually the hours are longer and the work is harder here," said Williams. We can do anything -- we even built two concession booths used at our Organization Day," said Trotter. Although his troops work long, hard hours, Provost claims the morale within the unit is good and seems to be constantly improving.
After explaining that it was his job to fix "gun-dog" mistakes, "everything in the turret that makes the gun shoot," he added, "When we have a job that is held up because parts aren't available, we scrounge for what we need.
If we know of someplace where a particular part is available , we order the part like we are supposed to, but we also arrange to borrow or trade for what we need. We don't just wait around for parts. We get things fixed and gone as quick as we can. We're squared away," he said. On October 1, the nd Maintenance Company, 7lst Maint. Provost said that when that happens, the new unit will be "picking up our non-combat arms customers.
This will remove those 46 other customers we have and then we can concentrate on the th FA. With the change in designation came a new mission for the company of over soldiers. According to company commander, Capt. Friedman, the unit has, in concept, two distinct missions. Yet, in actuality, there are four. We reinforce their direct support assets," he said. The Forward Storage Site, which stocks the Class IX major repair parts an some high priority components, is the other half of the platoon's mission.
Programs that the company has implemented to augment their support of the community and the Corps are a scrap metal for money program, and, as part of BUDS, forward support teams provide on-the-spot support to elements of the 1st Armored Division when they go to the field. Barrington Mullins, the platoon's senior inspector. And nobody can understand why we claim to work as hard and as long as we do, when all we do is 'operate the Cann Point. For example, before a condemmed truck ever reaches the 'junkyard,' it must be inspected, documented, classified, disassembled, stored, and stripped of all salvagable major assemblies.
MCEP's purpose is to return serviceable and unserviceable items to the supply system and dispose of scrap metal. The first step to oblivion for any piece of equipment which comes to the MCEP for disposal is the inspection station. We also verify the equipment condition code and insure all parts issued with the equipment as listed in the operations manual is there. These essentially new items are classified as code A," he said.
Code B items are used items which are good and serviceable. Code F items are unserviceable, but economically repairable. Code G's are equipment, such as trucks, which are missing items. Code P's are items which are uneconomically repairable by Army standards, yet are still repairable.
And at the far end of the scale are Code H items, which are condemned nothing recoverable. Mullins said that even when a piece of equipment is listed Code G, every missing item must be accounted for. Or, they must be accounted for in the paperwork.
If not, equipment will be turned in that's been stripped and rendered totally useless. The th tells us where it's to be shipped, stored or transferred to. But before the truck finds itself rotting away in the cannibalization point, it will most likely spend some storage time in the unit's Class VII yard.
Later, it will spend a few more hours in the platoon's motor pool, where it will be stripped. According to CW02 Ores W. Moore III, the MCEP's new platoon leader, "The Cannibalization Point cannot provide major assemblies or their integral components, but is an excellent source of supply for body and suspension parts, air and hydraulic lines and fittings, electrical components, and other hard to get items.
There is also a good supply of serviceable tires and rims available for issue. The 'Cann Yard' is the big saver. By reusing parts that are still good, a unit doesn't have to waste time and money ordering from the manufacturer, and the Army saves on transportation costs. Well these soldiers knew they were on the cutting edge of something new.
They met the challenge, and I think defeated it. I know he made 1 st Lt, but in most of the slides I have he is a 2 nd Lt. On some of his slides he mentions Captain Martin, Lt.
By Thanksgiving he was home and not in the military although I think he stayed in the reserves for a while. Dennis Daly was an Army dependent in living in Illesheim, Germany. Email from Bill Specht, th Ord Co, Has the th been phased out or where are they now? Just a lot of proud memories. Here's what I remember about the th.
It was at Ft. Under Operation Gyroscope in the company was transferred to Germany and placed under the 87th Ord. In company was redesignated as the th Ord.
Sergeant was Bobbie R. Bruce Lingle, th Ord Co, The First Sargent was Sidney Hale. Our shop area was the last two hangars going toward the north from the main gate. The small building just to the north of the last hanger with the semi trailers backed up to it was Tech Supply. We had alerts monthly, and hooked everything up and hit the road. I think we were timed on those, having to be formed up in convoy and moving out within one hour. The specialty tools were kept in vans out in front of the hangars, and they too were always loaded and ready to go.
If you needed a certain tool, you could check it out and return it by the end of the day. Weapons were kept in the armory, on the second floor above the Orderly Room. Those had to be checked out before heading to the shop area during and alert.