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Privatbahner wollen die Strecken übernehmen. The advice comes with the assumption that the work-life balance is inherently a "woman's problem.

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September Intensity of Bass. Stuttgart All Star Band tritt am Gee Hye Lee Trio feat. Frank Kuruc geht im Herbst nach Südkorea! Juni CD MP3. Kaapstad geht im November ins Studio! Quartett Stuttgart Ost While pair-bonds of varying forms were recognized by most societies as acceptable social arrangements, marriage was reserved for heterosexual pairings and had a transactional nature, where wives were in many cases a form of property being exchanged between father and husband, and who would have to serve the function of reproduction.

Communities exerted pressure on people to form pair-bonds in places such as Europe ; in China , society "demanded people get married before having a sexual relationship" [6] and many societies found that some formally recognized bond between a man and a woman was the best way of rearing and educating children as well as helping to avoid conflicts and misunderstandings regarding competition for mates.

Generally, during much of recorded history of humans in civilization, and into the Middle Ages in Europe , weddings were seen as business arrangements between families, while romance was something that happened outside of marriage discreetly, such as covert meetings. From about a worldwide movement perhaps described as the "empowerment of the individual" took hold, leading towards greater emancipation of women and equality of individuals.

Men and women became more equal politically, financially, and socially in many nations. Women eventually won the right to vote in many countries and own property and receive equal treatment by the law , and these changes had profound impacts on the relationships between men and women. In many societies, individuals could decide—on their own—whether they should marry, whom they should marry, and when they should marry.

A few centuries ago, dating was sometimes described as a "courtship ritual where young women entertained gentleman callers, usually in the home, under the watchful eye of a chaperone ," [8] but increasingly, in many Western countries, it became a self-initiated activity with two young people going out as a couple in public together.

Still, dating varies considerably by nation, custom, religious upbringing, technology, and social class, and important exceptions with regards to individual freedoms remain as many countries today still practice arranged marriages, request dowries, and forbid same-sex pairings. Although in many countries, movies, meals, and meeting in coffeehouses and other places is now popular, as are advice books suggesting various strategies for men and women, [9] in other parts of the world, such as in South Asia and many parts of the Middle East, being alone in public as a couple with another person is not only frowned upon but can even lead to either person being socially ostracized.

In the twentieth century, dating was sometimes seen as a precursor to marriage but it could also be considered as an end-in-itself, that is, an informal social activity akin to friendship. It generally happened in that portion of a person's life before the age of marriage, [10] but as marriage became less permanent with the advent of divorce , dating could happen at other times in peoples lives as well.

People became more mobile. Cars extended the range of dating as well as enabled back-seat sexual exploration. In the mid-twentieth century, the advent of birth control as well as safer procedures for abortion changed the equation considerably, and there was less pressure to marry as a means for satisfying sexual urges.

New types of relationships formed; it was possible for people to live together without marrying and without children. Information about human sexuality grew, and with it an acceptance of all types of sexual orientations is becoming more common. Today, the institution of dating continues to evolve at a rapid rate with new possibilities and choices opening up particularly through online dating.

Social rules regarding dating vary considerably according to variables such as country, social class, race, religion, age, sexual orientation and gender. Behavior patterns are generally unwritten and constantly changing. There are considerable differences between social and personal values. Each culture has particular patterns which determine such choices as whether the man asks the woman out, where people might meet, whether kissing is acceptable on a first date, the substance of conversation, who should pay for meals or entertainment, [16] [17] or whether splitting expenses is allowed.

Among the Karen people in Burma and Thailand , women are expected to write love poetry and give gifts to win over the man. For example, director Blake Edwards wanted to date singing star Julie Andrews , and he joked in parties about her persona by saying that her "endlessly cheerful governess" image from movies such as Mary Poppins and The Sound of Music gave her the image of possibly having "lilacs for pubic hair"; [19] Andrews appreciated his humor, sent him lilacs, dated him and later married him, and the couple stayed together for 41 years until his death in While the term dating has many meanings, the most common refers to a trial period in which two people explore whether to take the relationship further towards a more permanent relationship; in this sense, dating refers to the time when people are physically together in public as opposed to the earlier time period in which people are arranging the date, perhaps by corresponding by email or text or phone.

If two unmarried celebrities are seen in public together, they are often described as "dating" which means they were seen in public together, and it is not clear whether they are merely friends, exploring a more intimate relationship, or are romantically involved.

A related sense of the term is when two people have been out in public only a few times but have not yet committed to a relationship; in this sense, dating describes an initial trial period and can be contrasted with "being in a committed relationship". Often physical characteristics, personality, financial status, and other aspects of the involved persons are judged and, as a result, feelings can be hurt and confidence shaken.

Because of the uncertainty of the whole situation, the desire to be acceptable to the other person, and the possibility of rejection, dating can be very stressful for all parties involved. Some studies have shown that dating tends to be extremely difficult for people with social anxiety disorder.

While some of what happens on a date is guided by an understanding of basic, unspoken rules, there is considerable room to experiment, and there are numerous sources of advice available. There are now more than businesses worldwide that offer dating coach services—with almost of those operating in the U. The copulatory gaze, looking lengthily at a new possible partner, brings you straight into a sparring scenario; you will stare for two to three seconds when you first spy each other, then look down or away before bringing your eyes in sync again.

This may be combined with displacement gestures, small repetitive fiddles that signal a desire to speed things up and make contact. When approaching a stranger you want to impress, exude confidence in your stance, even if you're on edge.

Pull up to your full height in a subtle chest-thrust pose, which arches your back, puffs out your upper body and pushes out your buttocks. Roll your shoulders back and down and relax your facial expression. There are numerous ways to meet potential dates, including blind dates, classified ads, dating websites, hobbies, holidays, office romance, social networking, speed dating, and others. A Pew study in which examined Internet users in long-term relationships including marriage, found that many met by contacts at work or at school.

There is a general perception that men and women approach dating differently, hence the reason why advice for each sex varies greatly, particularly when dispensed by popular magazines. For example, it is a common belief that heterosexual men often seek women based on beauty and youth.

All of these are examples of gender stereotypes which plague dating discourse and shape individuals' and societies' expectations of how heterosexual relationships should be navigated. In addition to the detrimental effects of upholding limited views of relationships and sexual and romantic desires, stereotypes also lead to framing social problems in a problematic way.

For example, some have noted that educated women in many countries including Italy and Russia , and the United States find it difficult to have a career as well as raise a family, prompting a number of writers to suggest how women should approach dating and how to time their careers and personal life. The advice comes with the assumption that the work-life balance is inherently a "woman's problem. Accordingly, an issue regarding dating is the subject of career timing which generates controversy.

Some views reflect a traditional notion of gender roles. For example, Danielle Crittenden in What Our Mothers Didn't Tell Us argued that having both a career and family at the same time was taxing and stressful for a woman; as a result, she suggested that women should date in their early twenties with a seriousness of purpose, marry when their relative beauty permitted them to find a reliable partner, have children, then return to work in their early thirties with kids in school; Crittenden acknowledged that splitting a career path with a ten-year baby-raising hiatus posed difficulties.

Columnist Maureen Dowd quoted comedian Bill Maher on the subject of differing dating agendas between men and women: In studies comparing children with heterosexual families and children with homosexual families, there have been no major differences noted; though some claims suggest that kids with homosexual parents end up more well adjusted than their peers with heterosexual parents, purportedly due to the lack of marginalizing gender roles in same-sex families.

It is increasingly common today, however, with new generations and in a growing number of countries, to frame the work-life balance issue as a social problem rather than a gender problem. With the advent of a changing workplace, the increased participation of women in the labor force , an increasing number of men who are picking up their share of parenting and housework, [50] and more governments and industries committing themselves to achieving gender equality, the question of whether or not, or when to start a family is slowly being recognized as an issue that touches or should touch both genders.

The prospect of love often entails anxiety, sometimes with a fear of commitment [51] and a fear of intimacy for persons of both sexes.

There's something wonderful, I think, about taking chances on love and sex. Going out on a limb can be roller-coaster scary because none of us want to be rejected or to have our heart broken. But so what if that happens? I, for one, would rather fall flat on my face as I serenade my partner off-key and all in a bikini and a short little pool skirt than sit on the edge of the pool, dipping my toes in silence. One dating adviser agreed that love is risky, and wrote that "There is truly only one real danger that we must concern ourselves with and that is closing our hearts to the possibility that love exists.

What happens in the dating world can reflect larger currents within popular culture. For example, when the book The Rules appeared, it touched off media controversy about how men and women should relate to each other, with different positions taken by columnist Maureen Dowd of The New York Times [56] and British writer Kira Cochrane of The Guardian.

Since people dating often do not know each other well, there is the risk of violence , including date rape. Sara McCorquodale suggests that women meeting strangers on dates meet initially in busy public places, share details of upcoming dates with friends or family so they know where they'll be and who they'll be with, avoid revealing one's surname or address, and conducting searches on them on the Internet prior to the date.

Don't leave drinks unattended; have an exit plan if things go badly; and ask a friend to call you on your cell phone an hour into the date to ask how it's going. If you explain beautifully, a woman does not look to see whether you are handsome or not -- but listens more, so you can win her heart.

That is why I advise our boys to read stories and watch movies more and to learn more beautiful phrases to tell girls. The Internet is shaping the way new generations date. Facebook , Skype , Whatsapp , and other applications have made remote connections possible. Online dating tools are an alternate way to meet potential dates. Dating customs and habits vary considerably throughout the world.

The average duration of courtship before proceeding to engagement or marriage varies considerably throughout the world. According to one source, there are four ways that marriage can happen among the Nyangatom people: Asia is a mix of traditional approaches with involvement by parents and extended families such as arranged marriages as well as modern dating. Patterns of dating are changing in China, with increased modernization bumping into traditional ways. One report in China Daily suggests that dating for Chinese university women is "difficult" and "takes work" and steals time away from academic advancement, and places women in a precarious position of having to balance personal success against traditional Chinese relationships.

But in China, we study together. Like other women in my social circle, I have certain demands for a potential mate. He doesn't have to make much more than I do, but he must be doing at least as well as I am, and has to be compatible with me, both morally and spiritually He should also own an apartment instead of us buying one together. Remember what Virginia Wolf [ sic ] said? Every woman should have a room of her own.

The game show If You Are the One , titled after Chinese personal ads, featured provocative contestants making sexual allusions and the show reportedly ran afoul of authorities and had to change its approach. There are conflicting reports about dating in China's capital city. One account suggests that the dating scene in Beijing is "sad" with particular difficulties for expatriate Chinese women hoping to find romance.

Each year, November 11 has become an unofficial holiday [88] known as China's Singles' Day when singles are encouraged to make an extra effort to find a partner. In Arabic numerals, the day looks like "", that is, "like four single people standing together", and there was speculation that it originated in the late s when college students celebrated being single with "a little self-mockery" [88] but a differing explanation dates it back to events in the Roman Empire. There is concern that young people's views of marriage have changed because of economic opportunities, with many choosing deliberately not to get married, [88] as well as young marrieds who have decided not to have children, or to postpone having them.

Jinguoyuan organized periodic matchmaking events often attended by parents. Chinese-style flirtatiousness is termed sajiao , best described as "to unleash coquettishness" with feminine voice, tender gestures, and girlish protestations.

Romantic love is more difficult during times of financial stress, and economic forces can encourage singles, particularly women, to select a partner primarily on financial considerations. Some men postpone marriage until their financial position is more secure and use wealth to help attract women.

One trend is towards exclusive matchmaking events for the 'rich and powerful'; for example, an annual June event in Wuhan with expensive entry-ticket prices for men 99, RMB lets financially secure men choose so-called bikini brides based on their beauty and education , [92] and the financial exclusivity of the event was criticized by the official news outlet China Daily.

A brave lover in Beijing must be prepared to accept a paradigm shift to enjoy the cross-cultural dating experience. Relationships between students preparing for college are frowned upon by many parents in China.

There was a report that sexual relations among middle schoolers in Guangzhou sometimes resulted in abortions. Indian dating is heavily influenced by the custom of arranged marriages which require little dating, although there are strong indications that the institution is undergoing change, and that love marriages are becoming more accepted as India becomes more intertwined with the rest of the world.

In the cities at least, it is becoming more accepted for two people to meet and try to find if there is compatibility. The majority of Indian marriages are arranged by parents and relatives, and one estimate is that 7 of every 10 marriages are arranged. Writer Lavina Melwani described a happy marriage which had been arranged by the bride's father, and noted that during the engagement, the woman was allowed to go out with him before they were married on only one occasion; the couple married and found happiness.

Until recently, Indian marriages had all the trappings of a business transaction involving two deal-making families, a hardboiled matchmaker and a vocal board of shareholders — concerned uncles and aunts. The couple was almost incidental to the deal. They just dressed and showed up for the wedding ceremony. And after that the onus was on them to adjust to the 1, relatives, get to know each other and make the marriage work. Relationships in which dating is undertaken by two people, who choose their dates without parental involvement and sometimes carry on clandestine get-togethers, has become increasingly common.

When this leads to a wedding, the resulting unions are sometimes called love marriages. There are increasing incidences when couples initiate contact on their own, particularly if they live in a foreign country; in one case, a couple met surreptitiously over a game of cards.

Dating websites are gaining ground in India. Writer Rupa Dev preferred websites which emphasized authenticity and screened people before entering their names into their databases, making it a safer environment overall, so that site users can have greater trust that it is safe to date others on the site.

During the interval before marriage, whether it is an arranged or a love marriage, private detectives have been hired to check up on a prospective bride or groom, or to verify claims about a potential spouse made in newspaper advertising, and there are reports that such snooping is increasing. Transsexuals and eunuchs have begun using Internet dating in some states in India. The practice of dating runs against some religious traditions, and the radical Hindu group Sri Ram Sena threatened to "force unwed couples" to marry, if they were discovered dating on Valentine's Day ; a fundamentalist leader said "drinking and dancing in bars and celebrating this day has nothing to do with Hindu traditions.

Another group, Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha , threatened to do the same, for which it was severely mocked online [] and on the day after Valentine's Day , had protesters outside its Delhi headquarters, with people mockingly complaining that it did not fulfill its "promise", [] with some having come with materials for the wedding rituals.

There is a type of courtship called Omiai in which parents hire a matchmaker to give resumes and pictures to potential mates for their approval, leading to a formal meeting with parents and matchmaker attending. The reasons for dating in Korea are various. Research conducted by Saegye Daily showed that teenagers choose to date for reasons such as "to become more mature," "to gain consultation on worries, or troubles," or "to learn the difference between boys and girls," etc.

Present Korean dating shows a changing attitude due to the influence of tradition and modernization. There are a lot of Confucian ideas and practices that still saturate South Korean culture and daily life as traditional values. It is one of the old teachings of Confucianism [] and reveals its inclination toward conservatism. Most Koreans tend to regard dating as a precursor to marriage. There is no dating agency but the market for marriage agencies are growing continuously.

Also, "Mat-sun", the blind date which is usually based on the premise of marriage, is held often among ages of late 20s to 30s. However, the majority still takes getting into a relationship seriously.

Dating in Korea is also considered a necessary activity supported by society. College students in their sophomore to junior year who have not been in a relationship feel anxious that they are falling behind amongst their peers. Most of them try "sogaeting", going out on a blind date, for the first time to get into a relationship. Dating is a duty that most people feel they must take on to not seem incompetent. Where Are We Going?

Dating has also been depicted to be an activity of fun and happiness. According to a survey by wedding consulting agency, men consider a physical relation as a catalyst of love, otherwise, women regard it as a confirmation of affection. Adding to it, both Marriages and courtship in Pakistan are influenced by traditional cultural practices similar to those elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent as well as Muslim norms and manners.

Illegitimate relationships before marriage are considered a social taboo and social interaction between unmarried men and women is encouraged at a modest and healthy level. Couples are usually wedded through either an arranged marriage or love marriage. Love marriages are those in which the individuals have chosen a partner whom they like by their own choice prior to marriage, and usually occur with the consent of parents and family. Arranged marriages on the other hand are marriages which are set and agreed by the families or guardians of the two individuals where the couple may not have met before.

In either cases and in consistency with traditional marital practices, individuals who marry are persuaded to meet and talk to each other for some time before considering marrying so that they can check their compatibility. The original SDU, which controversially promoted marriages among university graduate singles, no longer exists today. On 28 January , it was merged with SDS [Social Development Services], which just as controversially promoted marriages among non-graduate singles.

The merged unit, SDN Social Development Network seeks to promote meaningful relationships, with marriage touted as a top life goal, among all resident [Singapore] singles within a conducive network environment of singles, relevant commercial and public entities. One report suggested that in southern Taiwan , "traditional rules of courtship" still apply despite the influence of popular culture ; for example, men continue to take the initiative in forming relationships.

What caused relationships to break up? In Britain, the term dating bears similarity to the American sense of the tentative exploratory part of a relationship.

If two people are going out together , it may mean they're dating but that their relationship has advanced to a relatively long-standing and sexual boyfriend-girlfriend relationship although they're not cohabiting. Although Britons are familiar with the term dating, the rituals surrounding courtship are somewhat different from those commonly found in North America. Writer Kira Cochrane advises daters to "get out there and meet people" while noting a trend of temporary suspension of marriage until an individual reaches his or her thirties.

She felt "clueless and unwanted", she wrote, and found advice books such as The Rules helpful. The city and metropolitan area are consistently ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP ; Mercer listed Stuttgart as 21st on its list of cities by quality of living , [a] [9] innovation agency 2thinknow ranked the city 24th globally out of cities [10] [b] and the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked the city as a Beta-status world city in their survey.

Since the 6th millennium BC, the Stuttgart area has been an important agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to utilize the rich soil of the Neckar valley. The Roman Empire conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad Cannstatt , making it the most important regional center for several centuries.

Stuttgart's roots were truly laid in the 10th century with its founding by Liudolf , Duke of Swabia , as a stud farm for his warhorses. Initially overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt , the town grew steadily and was granted a charter in The fortunes of Stuttgart turned with those of the House of Württemberg , and they made it the capital of their county , duchy , and kingdom from the 15th century to Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the Thirty Years' War and devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile production during World War II.

However, by , the city had bounced back and it became the major economic, industrial, tourism and publishing center it is today. Stuttgart is also a transport junction, and possesses the sixth-largest airport in Germany. Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities. This often surprises visitors who associate the city with its reputation as the " cradle of the automobile ".

In July , Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area. Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. Stuttgart, often nicknamed the " Schwabenmetropole " English: Originally, the most important location in the Neckar river valley as the hilly rim of the Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad Cannstatt. As with many military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained there even after the Limes moved further east.

When they did, the town was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery. In , Duke Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding property. Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall 's archives as " Canstat ad Neccarum " German: In AD , Duke Liudolf of Swabia , son of the current Holy Roman Emperor Otto I , decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry during the Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres 3.

In , Bruno of Calw built the precursor building to the Old Castle. Stuttgart's viticulture, first documented in the Holy Roman Empire in the year AD, [34] kept people in the area of that stud farm for some time, but the area was still largely overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt because of its role as a local crossroad for many major European trade routes. His son, Eberhard I "the Illustrious," [27] would be the first to begin the many major expansions of Stuttgart under the House of Württemberg.

Eberhard desired to expand the realm his father had built through military action with the aid of the anti-king Henry Raspe IV , Landgrave of Thuringia , but was thwarted by the action of Emperor Rudolph I. Eberhard I, defeated on the battlefield, lost Stuttgart and his castle razed in [40] to Esslingen and the city was thus managed by the city state from to Eberhard seized the opportunity granted to him by the political chaos, and recaptured his hometown and birthplace in , [41] and made much territorial gain.

With peace restored at last, Eberhard began repairs and expansion to Stuttgart beginning with the reconstruction of Wirtemberg Castle , ancestral home to the House of Württemberg, in and then began expansion of the city's defenses. The early s were an important one for Stuttgart: Eberhard I moved the seat of the County to the city to a new and expanded castle , [42] the collegiate church in Beutelsbach , where previous members of the Württemberg dynasty had been buried prior to its destruction in , [41] moved to its current location in Stuttgart in , [41] and the town's Stiftkirche was expanded into an abbey, and the control of the Martinskirche by the Bishopric of Constance was broken by Papal order in Towards the end of the 15th Century , Count Ulrich V began construction of a new suburb on the northeastern edge of the city around the Dominican monastery Hospitalkirche.

In the , the first Landtag of the Estates of Württemberg was established in Stuttgart and a similar institution was established in Leonberg. After the temporary partitions of the County of Württemberg by the Treaties of Nürtingen , Münsingen , and Esslingen , Stuttgart was once again declared the capital of the County in In , Stuttgart officially became the de facto residence of the Count himself as opposed to the location of his home, the Old Castle.

All this would be lost to the Württembergs during the reign of his son, Ulrich. Though Ulrich initially made territorial gains as a result of his decision to fight alongside the Emperor Maximilian I , [43] he was no friend of the powerful Swabian League nor of his own subjects, [43] who launched the Poor Conrad rebellion of That same year, Ulrich was soundly defeated and he was and driven into exile in France and Switzerland following the League's conquest of Württemberg.

Ulrich, with the help of Philip I , Landgrave of Hesse , seized the chance to restore himself to power albeit as an Austrian vassal [43] in the turmoil of the Reformation and War with the Turks and invited Erhard Schnepf to bring the Reformation to Stuttgart. He accepted, was named Court Preacher in Stuttgart, and worked in concert with Ambrosius Blarer until his dismissal following his resistance to the Augsburg Interim by the Duke in He had grown up in a Württemberg in turmoil, and wished to rebuild its image.

To this end, he once again began a construction boom all over the Duchy under the direction of Court Architect Aberlin Tretsch ; [50] knowing full well that the time of the Reisekönigtum was over, Christoph and Tretsch rebuilt and remodeled the Old Castle into a Renaissance palace, [42] and from — 44 , what is today the Schillerplatz was built as a town square.

But it was architect Heinrich Schickhardt who would carry Tretsch's torch further; Schickhardt constructed the Stammheim Castle in the suburb of Stammheim , rebuilt the Fruchtkasten in the today's Schillerplatz, [51] and expanded the Prinzebau. The Thirty Years' War devastated the city, [53] and it would slowly decline for a period of time from then on. The Habsburgs once again had full reign of the city for another four years, and in that time Stuttgart had to carry the burden of billeting the pro-Habsburg armies in Swabia.

Ferdinand III , King of the Romans , entered the city in and, two years later in , once again attempted to re-Catholicize Württemberg.

For the first time in centuries, Duke Eberhard Ludwig moved the seat of the Duchy out of the declining city of Stuttgart to Ludwigsburg , founded in , in while the namesake Baroque palace , known as the "Versailles of Swabia," [60] was still under construction.

When he came of age and returned from his tutoring at the court of Frederick the Great , King of Prussia , Charles desired to move the capital back to Stuttgart.

He commissioned the construction of the New Castle in , [61] Castle Solitude in , [62] Castle Hohenheim in , [63] and the Karlsschule in Despite being the capital and seat of the Duchy, the general staff of the Army of Württemberg was not present in the city. Stuttgart was proclaimed capital once more when Württemberg became an electorate in , [30] and was yet again named as capital when the Kingdom of Württemberg was formed in by the Peace of Pressburg.

King Frederick I 's Württemberg was given high status in the Confederation of the Rhine among the College of Kings, and the lands of nearby secondary German states. King Wilhelm I and Queen Catherine in an attempt to assuage the suffering caused by the Year Without Summer and following famine, [70] introduced the first Cannstatter Volksfest to celebrate the year's bountiful harvest. From the outset of the 19th century , Stuttgart's development was once again impeded by its location population of the city at the time was around 50, , [72] but the city began to experience the beginning of economic revival with the opening of the Main Station in Prior to then, the signs of rebirth in Stuttgart were evidenced by the construction of such buildings of Rosenstein Castle in —, the Wilhelmspalais —, and the foundations of the Staatsgalerie in , University of Stuttgart in , [73] the University of Music and Performing Arts later, in When internal divisions of the Frankfurt Parliament began the demise of that congress, the majority of the Frankfurt Congress voted to move to Stuttgart to flee the reach of the Prussian and Austrian armies in Frankfurt and Mainz.

Stuttgart's literary tradition also bore yet more fruits, being the home of such writers of national importance as Wilhelm Hauff , Ludwig Uhland , Gustav Schwab , and Eduard Mörike. The advent of Industrialisation in Germany heralded a major growth of population for Stuttgart: In , Stuttgart counted 35, inhabitants, [80] rose to 50, in , 69, inhabitants in , [80] and finally 91, residents in This number doubled, due to the incorporation of local towns, to approximately , in and then , in Stuttgart is purported to be the location of the automobile's invention by Karl Benz and then industrialized by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in a small workshop in Bad Cannstatt that would become Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft in In , the International Socialist Congress was held in Stuttgart was attended by about 60, people.

During World War I , the city was a target of air raids. In , 29 bombs struck the city and the nearby Rotebühlkaserne , killing four soldiers and injuring another 43, and likewise killing four civilians. The next major air raid on Stuttgart occurred 15 September , when structural damage caused house collapses that killed eleven people.

Under pressure from the revolutionaries, Wilhelm II refused the crown, but also refused to abdicate the throne. On 26 April , a new constitution was devised, and the final draft was approved and ratified on 25 September by the Constituent Assembly. In , Stuttgart temporarily became the seat of the German National Government when the administration fled from Berlin from the Kapp Putsch.

Due to the Nazi Party 's practice of Gleichschaltung , Stuttgart's political importance as state capital became totally nonexistent, though it remained the cultural and economic center of the central Neckar region. Stuttgart, one of the cities bestowed an honorary title by the Nazi regime, was given the moniker "City of the Abroad Germans " in The Hotel Silber English: Silver , previously occupied by other forms of political police , was occupied by the Gestapo in to detain and torture political dissidents.

The nearby court at Archive Street German: As the Memorial at Stuttgart North records, [99] between the first train arrived 1 December , and took around 1, men to Riga and , more than 2, Jews from all over Württemberg [99] were deported to Theresienstadt , Auschwitz , and the ghettos at Riga and Izbica.

Of them, only held in Internment survived the Shoah. Stuttgart, like many of Germany's major cities, was savaged throughout the war by Allied air raids. For the first four years of the war, successful air raids on the city were rare because of the capable defense of the city by Wehrmacht ground forces, the Luftwaffe , and artificial fog.

The heaviest raid took place on 12 September , when the Royal Air Force, dropping over , bombs — including 75 blockbusters — leveled Stuttgart's city center, killing people in the resulting firestorm.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Stuttgart in April Although the attack on the city was to be conducted by the US Seventh Army's th Infantry Division , French leader Charles de Gaulle found this to be unacceptable, as he felt the capture of the region by Free French forces would increase French influence in post-war decisions.

The French 5th Armored Division then captured Stuttgart on 21 April , encountering little resistance. Truman was unable to get De Gaulle to withdraw troops from Stuttgart until after the final boundaries of the zones of occupation were established. Stuttgart then became capital of Württemberg-Baden , one of the three areas of Allied occupation in Baden-Württemberg, from until The military government of the American occupation zone established a Displaced persons camp for displaced persons , mostly forced labourers from Central and Eastern European industrial firms in the area.

Byrnes at the Stuttgart Opera House. In , the city applied to become the capital of the soon to-be Federal Republic of Germany , and was a serious contender against Frankfurt , Kassel , and Bonn. All these cities were examined by the Parlamentarischer Rat , [] but ultimately Bonn won the bid when the Republic was founded on 23 May The immediate aftermath of the War would be marked by the controversial efforts of Arnulf Klett , the first Oberbürgermesiter of Stuttgart, to restore the city.

Klett favored the idea of a modernist Automotive city with functional divisions for residential, commercial and industrial areas according to the Athens Charter. Klett demolished both ruins and entire streets of largely undamaged buildings without rebuilding them to their original visage, a move that earned him much scorn from his contemporaries. Klett also dramatically expanded the public transportation of Stuttgart with the Stuttgart Stadtbahn and, in , initiated a city partnership with the French city of Strasbourg as part of an attempt to mend Franco-German relations.

It would be finalized in and is still active today. On 25 April , the other two parts of the former German states of Baden and Württemberg , South Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern merged and formed the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg , with Stuttgart as its capital.

The city's population, halved by the Second World War, began sudden growth with the mass influx of German refugees expelled from their homes and communities by the Soviets from the late s until to the city.

Economic migrants , called " Gastarbeiter ," from Italy , and later Greece and Turkey but primarily from Yugoslavia , came flocking to Stuttgart because of the economic wonder called the " Wirtschaftswunder " unfolding in West Germany. In the late s , the municipal district of Stammheim was center stage to one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history.

Stammheim Prison , built from to , came to be the place of incarceration for Ulrike Meinhof , Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin , and Jan-Carl Raspe , members of a communist terrorist organization known as the Red Army Faction , during their trial at the Oberlandesgericht Stuttgart in Several attempts were made by the organization to free the terrorists during the " German Autumn " of that culminated in such events as the kidnap and murder of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight When it became clear, after many attempts to free the inmates including the smuggling of three weapons into the prison by their lawyer, [] [] that the terrorists could not escape and that they would receive Life sentencing , the terrorists killed themselves [g] in April in an event remembered locally as the " Todesnacht von Stammheim ," "Night of Death at Stammheim.

Mikhail Gorbachev , while on a trip to West Germany to offer a spot for a West German astronaut in a Soviet space mission, [] visited Stuttgart 14 June and was the honored guest of a sumptuous reception held at the Stuttgart. Since the monumental happenings of the s, Stuttgart has continued being an important center of not just Europe, but also the world. In , the World Horticultural Exposition , for which two new bridges were built, [] and World Athletics Championships of that year took place in Stuttgart in the Killesburg park and Mercedes-Benz Area respectively, bringing millions of new visitors to the city.

In , Stuttgart applied for the Summer Olympics but failed in their bid when the German Committee for the Olympics decided on Leipzig to host the Olympics in Germany.

Stuttgart still experienced some growing pains even long after its recovery from the Second World War.

In , the inner city become the focal point of the protests against the controversial Stuttgart 21f. During the sexual assaults perpetrated by gangs of migrant men across Germany in , at least 72 complaints were filed to city police of which 17 were sexual assault reports. At the height of the Cold War over 45, Americans were stationed across over 40 installations in and around the city.

These units of soldiers retrained in patrol and policing provided the law and order in the American zone of occupied Germany until the civilian German police forces could be re-established. The withdrawal of VII Corps caused a large reduction in the US military presence in the city and region and led to the closure of the majority of US installations in and around Stuttgart which resulted in the layoff of many local civilians who had been career employees of the US Army.

Local residents refer to the basin as the Stuttgarter Kessel , or "Stuttgart cauldron ," during the summer months because of its hot and humid climate that is frequently warmer than the surrounding countryside of Württemberg. Stuttgart covers an area of Stuttgart experiences an Oceanic climate Cfb , [] just like the British Isles and Northern France , but it is very extreme at times. In spite of the heat, there is no dry season and the city receives frequent but moderate precipitation year-round.

Typically during summer months, the nearby hills, Swabian Alb mountains, and Black Forest , Schurwald , and Swabian-Franconian Forest act as a shield from harsh weather but the city can be subject to thunderstorms, whereas in the winter periods snow may last for several days.

Winters last from December to March. Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last several weeks at a time as recently as Summers last from May until September. Though it is a rare occurrence in Stuttgart, the city sometimes receives damaging hailstorms , such as in July At the center of Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz. As well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park which runs down to the river Neckar , Stuttgart's two central castles and major museums and residential areas to the south west.

Although the city center was heavily damaged during World War II, [] many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city include:. A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart include see also museums below: At the center of Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular with families and cyclists.

Because of its shape on a map, the locals refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in The modern park stretches down to the river Neckar and is divided into the upper garden bordering the Old Castle , the Main Station , the State Theater and the State Parliament building , and the middle and lower gardens — a total of 61 hectares.

The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium. At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the larger Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's Wilhelma zoo and botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg , it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garden in southern Germany.

In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum. Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park, Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich garden show of and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps. The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the s, including the Bundesgartenschau and International Gardening Show, and runs miniature trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults.

The viewing tower Killesbergturm offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart. On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark is the famous ' Wilhelma ', Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens was built around as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg.

It currently houses around animals and some plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in Europe. There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See , which was created in by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve.

It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar near [Mühlhausen]. There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The lakes are also used for local water supplies. In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two 'Feuersee's literally fire lakes , striking for its views of the Johanneskirche St.

Johns church across the lake, surrounded by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen. The city boasts the largest mineral water deposits in Europe after Budapest , [] [] with over springs within the urban area. Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre Staatstheater and State Gallery Staatsgalerie.

The Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. Stuttgart is also home to one of Germany's most prestigious symphony orchestras , the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra , with famous English conductor Sir Roger Norrington , who developed a distinct sound of that orchestra, known as the Stuttgart Sound.

They mostly perform in the Liederhalle concert hall. The city offers two Broadway-style musical theaters, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater each approx.

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